• SSPAs traditionally had very low power-added efficiency (PAE)

    • Market availability mostly <30%

  • Low efficiency has been an impediment for more widespread satcom use

  • Century-old traveling wave tubes (TWT) still preferred for large GEO satellites

  • Current SSPA design not suitable for large volume production

  • >$200K for the simplest SSPA transponder

  • Smaller satellites require much more efficient SSPAs due to their size.

  • Cost of each SSPA needs to be low enough to be economically feasible for satellites below $1M costs

  • Given the size of new constellations (100s to 1,000s), volume production is a must.